History of Brušperk

A historical development of the town of Brušperk

The town has grown at the lowest of three hills on the right side of the Ondřejnice river, where the undulating landscape below Beskydy ends at the Odra river planes. It was founded in 13th century, at time of colonization, .when new settlements, towns, were founded by the King, aristocracy, and church. The foundation deed of Brušperk is dated 6 December 1269. It was issued by the Olomouc Bishop Bruno from Schauenberg, who had bought the area between the Odra and Ostravice rivers. The area along the Ondřejnice river was already inhabited at that time, however, inhabitants were spread. The oldest settlements comprise Staříč and Paskov with Slavonic names. German names can be found in case of settlements founded by Bruno. Hukvaldy was founded most probably at the first half of 13th century. Its name is deduced from Franco de Hukeswagh, German, who had bought the domination and later sold it to Bruno. The newly founded town gained its name by its founder Bruno. In the course of centuries, it has become grower, prospered, and also stagnated, faced catastrophes. Also its name varied. The former name Brunonisberg was followed by Brunsberg, Brunsperg, Bransberg, Brunssperk, Prussperk, Brussperg, and since 1854 Brušperk. It bears a name of its founder. Šperk means the beauty and decoration. At that time, it was a real jewellery among then Moravian towns. Despite the fact that its founder was German, having been a significant personality at that time, the town succeeded to resist to German influences, and was a Czech town. This is proved by a Czech inscription on a Baroque statue of The Holy Trinity dated 1761 and situated at the Comenius Square. It took a leading position for as long as 500 years in terms of a number of residents, crafts and guild production, trade and culture. From its very beginning, it acquired rights and privileges allocated by Olomouc Bishops. It grew on a green-sward and, pursuant to the Castle Law, it was walled against enemies by a bank and deep dike, wall. This name has been preserved at particular sites, current road named Valy, till the present time.

In 1545, it acquired a market privilege. The first annual market took place on the St. Cath-erine Holiday. Weekly markets took place every Tuesday. The market was attended only a little be-cause usually bad weather was on the St. Catherine day. In 1555, the Olomouc Bishop permitted to arrange another annual market on Tuesday prior to the St. Vitus. In 1568, he permitted the town to arrange the third annual market on the St. Matthew Day. Further, from a lot of other privileges, I men-tion a privilege to cook beer, granted to the town in 1567.

The guild production, especially weaving, was much important for the town. It was dealt with by more than three hundred weaving masters. In the course of 19th century, when textile factories were founded in the surrounding, their number fell down, and the guild declined. It was caused also by that weavers gained raw materials only from middlemen. The last weaving loom well-preserved in the town is currently a decoration of the Museum of V. Martínek at the National Hall at the square.

The guild production became extinct with development of industry and transport, small business was forbidden after February 1948 and, together with it, also experience and skills of former masters, stove builders, saddlers etc., were lost. The town became a calm settlement without any industrial zone.
Agricultural farms were an important source of living for inhabitants as well as for citizens performing various guilds. A number of inhabitants was continuously increasing. 1689 inhabitants lived in the town in 1794, which number increased to 3500 (1685 men and 1815 women) in 1857. The population did not decrease under a number of 2553 in the course of 19th century.

The town history is related to the Brušperk reeve estate which resulted into foundation of set-tlements Antonínov and Borošín. In 1920, they both became parts of the town.

Catastrophes faced by the town comprise fires, numerous epidemics attacking inhabitants and livestock, floods, bad weather, bad crops, high prices, as well as war noise and army expeditions.

In 1924, electric current was introduced in the town, in 1933 a building of a town water tank was completed in Borošín, and water main was implemented. The gas installation began in the town in 1979.

The town patron is St. George whom also the local church is dedicated to. Its tower wel-comes town attendants from any and all sides. And watching Brušperk from the opposite hill, St. Marcus Hill, the highest point of the cadastre of the town, we are fascinated by it, being as idyll, cur-rently frequently called Lachian Bethlehem.

The Middle Age character of the town changed in the course of 20th century, especially in its sec-ond half. Low small timber houses and close aisles between them disappeared. The previous yeomanly seat, yard, became extinct. At time of the First Republic, it was rebuilt to flats. Fields and building belonging to that estate were sold to private persons. The tow solved a high demand for flats by de-velopment of four communal residential buildings at the tow part called Závodí, thus providing flats to thirty two families.

In 1930s, the river was regulated, and new bridges and footbridges were built. The bus traffic development resulted into building of a state road from Brušperk into Trnávka. Guilds became re-placed by production developed in Vítkovice, Frýdek-Místek and Příbor, however, still a number of traders acted in the town providing their services to the whole surrounding, and many earlier born residents still have them in living memory.

The effort to build a railway to the town and thus provide quick and cheaper traffic needed for the production development, was not implemented. At the beginning of the century, it brought the yard owner Sölinger, who funded the building, into the bankruptcy. It was built neither in 1930 due to the bus traffic development.

A swimming-pool at the border of Brušperk and Fryčovice was a work executed by several Brušperk enthusiastic residents, on the opposite site, towards Krmelín, the Sokol House was built. I mention PhMr. Karel Šudich and businessman Albín Hill from many of them.

After the World War II, the town development continued further changing its general appearance. Many buildings were constructed as well as demolished. The town became by time larger along its whole periphery. New family houses were built especially at Závodí. Trade workshops became ex-tinct, business was forbidden. The agriculture collectivization resulted into the slope diversity loss. Numerous magic corners became inaccessible to residents due to balks ploughing. The cracked gray-ness gradually enveloped burgher houses, church, and other monuments. The biggest buildings of that time included the Basic School, Nursery School in 1970s, square surface treatment, building of a di-rect district road running on the plane on the right embankment of the Ondřejnice river. Although the town was neither an industrial center nor traffic junction, it was largely attended by residents of the wide surrounding because of its rich shopping network. The calm life of residents was disturbed by a huge flood in 1960s. The level of the river, Upper and Lower Koťbach water streams, arose by several meters, imprisoning residents in houses built on their embankments. It demolished also the swimming-pool. Therefore, three flood tanks were built on the water streams.

Vojtěch Martínek wrote: “It seems sometimes that the townlet is drowsing. It does not drowse, it makes efforts.“ The big effort reached its peak in 1990s. An overhaul of the National Hall was made, and a large building of the planned health center was completed. Several years it was a sad site in the town. Now it is its decoration and new home for seniors from Brušperk and near surrounding, who spend their old age in a pleasant environment. The former health center is the ownership of a collec-tive of doctors, seat of a general practitioner and children doctor and dental surgeons. The building contains also premises sufficient for rehabilitation, oculist, optics business unit and veterinary doctor. The town comprises also a private gynecologic outpatient department. The Retirements House Ondráš offers an outpatient department of another general practitioner. Two pharmacies are available in the town.

Most recently, also the square has gained a new look. Burgher houses lost their previous grayness and glare by bright colors to the area. Small shops were revived. The arcade including footways were paved, walls are painted and lighted. Open spaces gained years ago by old houses demolition at the Kostelní and Zádvoří roads were rebuilt to parking areas

On the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary (1950-2000) of teaching commencement in the new school building, the building was overhauled, and periodic reconstructions were carried out, always during holidays. Significant reconstructions and repairs were made in the Children ´s Home and in the Nursery School. A modern equipped kitchen provides catering to pupils of the Basic School, Nursery School, whole day catering to residents of the Retirements House. The housing was solved by the mu-nicipality by reconstruction of the building number 471, former Bacík ´s house at the Dráhy road, by building of nine flats, and building of eight small flats at the K Svaté vodě road. The local cemetery modifications changed this site to a real garden of the town. Particular alleys were paved, water dis-tribution was made, and lighting was installed. New waiting rooms were built at bus stops. Roads were named in order to improve the orientation in the town, new traffic marking was executed to im-prove the safety. Other significant works comprised reconstruction and extension of the town library, building of cloakrooms at the stadium, local roads refurbishment, and so on.

Construction companies have their seats in the town. They employ local residents and participate in works for the town and surrounding villages. They perform almost all professions. Several small farmers are active in the agriculture. The largest agricultural areas are cultivated by societies of agri-cultural producers.

Like other towns and villages, also Brušperk faces problems regarding not cultivated areas and communal wastes. There are six groceries, two butcheries, three florists, greengrocery, footwear, tex-tile and confection shop, drugstore, pet foods, haberdasher, hardware store, alcohol sample store, two confectioneries, six pubs offering catering, post office, Savings Bank, etc. Previously, four bakeries were situated in the town. This trade has not been survived and broad and pastry are delivered from surrounding villages.

What has been the town preparing for its residents? A large-scale town development program which implementation will depend on a decision to be made by town representatives and its financial potentials.

An Insight in the Brušperk Cultural History?

The devoted patriotic activity of teachers, priests as well as residents created a significant cultural center of Brušperk at the second half of 19th century. In 1871, the National Hall, first one of that type in Moravia, was established. It was based on the town needs and was serving to its purpose for more than eighty years. At that time, first associations started to be established – firemen association, Sokol, amateur theatricals in 1872. A Credit Bank was established in the town, followed by the Cooperative Bank in 1898. Since 1894 entries have been made in the town chronicle. A post office has been oper-ating in the town since 1861. The establishment of a reader ´s association Bruno in 1869 is deemed to be a commencement of the cultural life. At that time, puppet masters, brothers Vilém and František Pfegr, moved in the town from Bohemia, Sedlčany region. They bought eighty centimeter high pup-pets from the significant Czech puppet master Matěj Kopecký. They traveled with a wagon driven by horses into surrounding villages giving performances. When they founded their own families, they separated and devoted to puppetry individually.

The cultural life has been further developed since the beginning of 20th century. New associations and political parties were established. Their main activities comprised arrangement of social events and amateur performances. The town library commenced its periodic book borrowing activity. After the puppet master death, puppet performances were played by his son František Pfleger. He bought carrousels, horse carriage replaced by a vehicle. In summer he acted at wakes, in winter he gave puppet performances with his wife, and established also a traveling cinema.

The World War II did not interrupt the cultural tradition in the town. Amateurs gave performances in halls as well as in the nature at various places of the town. The Pfleger family gave puppet per-formances, acted in the Ostrava radio broadcast, and traveled with carousels. When František Pfleger died, the family sold puppets into Germany. The period following February 1948 affected also the cultural development in the town. All continued within Osvětová Beseda. A trend to buy the culture reached also Brušperk. It was more convenient. A number of amateurs and devoted people decreased , however, a new tradition of singers of the chorus Lašan was originated.

Like other towns, also Brušperk has its personalities of local, national and global importance. The first of them is Mr. František Pinkava, Gymnasium Professor, and Senior Lecturer of the Theological Faculty in Olomouc. He devoted to his birth town a book titled Brušperk and Its Surrounding issued by Občanská beseda on the occasion of the six hundred years anniversary of the town foundation. The book was printed in Olomouc in 1869. The Brušperk native PhDr. Adolf Kubis was a creator of the Czech education at the borderland. He acted and died in Olomouc. The both above mentioned natives devoted the town their own libraries. The Brušperk cemetery is a place where native František Polášek, teacher, musician and author of the Silesian anthem, is buried. Richard Skácel, School Headmaster and historian, Karel Špaček, Mayor and long-term chronicler of the town, Vilém Viteker, tailor, tradesman and director of the amateur theatricals as well as author of the tract The Hundred Years of the Amateur Theatricals in v Brušperk 1872 to 1972, entered the history of the cultural life of their native town. The writer Vojtěch Martínek devoted to its native town the romance Stavy ra-chotí, dramatized by Vilém Viteker. The dictionary of visual artists comprises the name of Bohumil Fiala, last stove building master, who dealt with art ceramics. Another significant native is František Palkovský, teacher, musical composer, bandmaster, conductor and founder of a chorus comprising 90 members at the beginning. After him, the chorus was directed by a Brušperk citizen but Fryčovice native, organist and music teacher, Antonín Konečný. The music world knows music pedagogues and composers Oldřich Palkovský, Přemysl Novák and conductor of the Karlovy Vary orchestra Vladimír Matěj, who acted many years also in Sweden.

A tradition of the amateur theatricals is also a base of later actors Dolfa Král and Jan Bartoš, actor, director and theatre dramatist. Excellent singers Ivo Žídek, whose mother was born in Brušperk, and native of neighboring Fryčovice, Lubomír Havlák, who attended the Basic School in Brušperk, are related to the town Brušperk, too. In 1922, Josef Matěj was born there. His compositions are played at concert stages all over the world. He is buried at the local cemetery. Alois Vantuch, devoted table-tennis team member and organizer of national championship in Brušperk, is worthy of a mention in the field of sports.

In 1990s, the National Hall was overhauled. The ground floor comprises the Information Center, while upstairs The Museum of V. Martínek, Chagall Gallery, and contact point for social allowances of the Municipal Office Frýdek-Místek, are situated. The hall upstairs area serves to arrangement of private and cabinet cultural events. Major events take place in the Basic School hall, concerts also in the St. George ´s Church.

The town representatives support the cultural activity and all events presenting the town to the surrounding. The Municipal Office supports financially restoration of historical monuments. Dear readers, perceive the brief familiarization with the town of Brušperk as invitation to visit its Museum of V. Martínek, Chagall Gallery, walking throughout the town, and making a bicycle trip at its new pleasant bicycle track.

Contacts

Informační centrum Brušperk
J. Á. Komenského 9,
739 44 Brušperk
Where is our place?

Telephone: 558 666 271

e-mail:
info@brusperk-mesto.cz

Opening hours:
Tuesday:
8.00 – 11.30, 13.00– 16.30 Wednesday:
8.00 – 11.30, 13.00 – 16.30 Thursday:
8.00 – 11.30, 13.00 – 16.30 Friday:
8.00 – 11.30, 13.00 – 16.30 Saturday:
9.30 – 12.30

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